Corrugated boxes are used frequently as shipping containers.
While bracing and blocking to similar to cushioning.
The shipping hazards depend largely upon the particular logistics system being employed. Boxes need to contain the product from manufacturing through distribution to sale and sometimes ‘end use’. More info is here: http://topwebdesignny.com. Others are designed to various items. Usually, more than 95 of all products in the United States are shipped in corrugated boxes.
Support from the product also provides load sharing and can be an important factor.
The method of loading boxes on pallets strongly affects stacking.
Vertical columns provide top-notch box performance while interlocking patterns of boxes significantly reduce performance. Loads of packaging engineers find it beneficial to periodically audit warehouses and visit customer’s package receiving operations. a completely new cycle of design and testing might be justified, when field performance is observed or documented to have problems. Engineers and designers start with the needs of the particular project.
Nevertheless, often designs are made with Computer Aided Design programs connected to automated sample making tables. Samples are often submitted to performance testing on the basis of ASTM and similar standard test protocols similar to the International Safe Transit Association. Structural design is matched with graphic design.
While marketing personnel sometimes use Focus groups or more quantitative means of assessing acceptance, for consumer based designs. Process starts by making corrugated board on a corrugating line, a long series of linked machines which should be in size of a football field. Skilled workers prepare job tickets for any stack of box blanks and route the blanks to fabrication machines. Printing dies and patterns are prepared on large, flexible, rubber or tin sheets. http://topwebdesignny.com Although, they are loaded onto rollers and the box blanks are fed through it, where any is trimmed, printed, cut, scored, folded, and glued to form a box. Then the manufacturer’s joint is most often joined with adhesive but may also be taped or stitched. And therefore the box is shipped flat to the packager who sets up the box, fills it, and closes it for shipment. Besides, the size of a box can be measured for either internal or external dimensions. Notice, box styles in Europe are typically defined by a 4 digit code specified by the European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers.
Quite a few items are shipped individually by express carrier, mail, and similar mixed logistics systems. I know that the demands of multiple manual handlings, automated sortation, and uncontrolled stacking in trucks or air containers put severe stress on boxes, box closures, and the contents. a lot of items being supplied to governments are handled very well. Special box specifications for government shipments are often applicable. Seriously. Military materiel, field supplies, and humanitarian aid often encounter severe handling and uncontrolled storage. Oftentimes many international shipments are handled very well. Corrugated boxes are described in 4G requirements. In the US, the Department of Transportation has jurisdiction and published requirements in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Shipment of dangerous goods or hazardous materials are highly regulated. Now let me tell you something. On the basis of the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods model regulations, every country has coordinated design and performance requirements for shipment. By the way, the means of closing a box is an important side of design.